American Education History 101: One Room Schools

The iconic one-room schoolhouse is a good place to start trying to understand the history of education in America. I get the impression most people think that the schooling system we have today is somehow the result of organic growth from the roots of one-room schools, that the sort of schooling described in Anne of Green Gables (Canadian, I know, but same model) developed logically into the ubiquitous Woodrow Wilson Middle Schools of today. This is most definitely not the case.

A good short book on the topic is One Room Schools of the Middle West by Wayne E. Fuller, a professor emeritus of history at the U of Texas El Paso. Much of what follows can be confirmed from that source.

When the teenagers and 20-somethings that made up the vast bulk of the settlers headed West, it wasn’t a free-for-all. The Land Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 established how the land in US lands west of the Appalachians were to be divvied up and sold. All the western lands that the US had claimed under the Treaty of Paris were to be surveyed and divided into 6 by 6 mile squares, with each such square further divided into 36 1-mile squares. Square 16, one of the squares adjacent to the middle of the 6-mile square, was set aside for education  in each of these ‘townships’ . How square 16 was to be so used was not spelled out in any detail, but was left up to the settlers.Therefore, the details may vary from place to place – I’ll just give a typical outline. Continue reading “American Education History 101: One Room Schools”

Christian Iconography: Madonna and Child

You might also want to check out Christian Iconography: the Basics.

Over on Fr. Z’s wonderful blog, the good father discusses a very interesting aspect of western Medieval and early Renaissance Madonna and Child representations – that the Child Jesus has a habit of grabbing His Mother’s veil or, less commonly, cloak:

By Duccio around 1300. A detail:

This gesture of the Christ Child is by no means universal – eastern icons, for example, often have the Child in a rather more formal pose, often issuing a blessing – but it is a strong theme especially in Italy.

Continue reading “Christian Iconography: Madonna and Child”

A Nocturnal Upon St. Lucy’s Day – John Donne

‘Tis the year’s midnight, and it is the day’s,
Lucy’s, who scarce seven hours herself unmasks ;
The sun is spent, and now his flasks
Send forth light squibs, no constant rays ;
The world’s whole sap is sunk ;
The general balm th’ hydroptic earth hath drunk,
Whither, as to the bed’s-feet, life is shrunk,
Dead and interr’d ; yet all these seem to laugh,
Compared with me, who am their epitaph.

Study me then, you who shall lovers be
At the next world, that is, at the next spring ;
For I am every dead thing,
In whom Love wrought new alchemy.
For his art did express
A quintessence even from nothingness,
From dull privations, and lean emptiness ;
He ruin’d me, and I am re-begot
Of absence, darkness, death—things which are not.

All others, from all things, draw all that’s good,
Life, soul, form, spirit, whence they being have ;
I, by Love’s limbec, am the grave
Of all, that’s nothing. Oft a flood
Have we two wept, and so
Drown’d the whole world, us two ; oft did we grow,
To be two chaoses, when we did show
Care to aught else ; and often absences
Withdrew our souls, and made us carcasses.

But I am by her death—which word wrongs her—
Of the first nothing the elixir grown ;
Were I a man, that I were one
I needs must know ; I should prefer,
If I were any beast,
Some ends, some means ; yea plants, yea stones detest,
And love ; all, all some properties invest.
If I an ordinary nothing were,
As shadow, a light, and body must be here.

But I am none ; nor will my sun renew.
You lovers, for whose sake the lesser sun
At this time to the Goat is run
To fetch new lust, and give it you,
Enjoy your summer all,
Since she enjoys her long night’s festival.
Let me prepare towards her, and let me call
This hour her vigil, and her eve, since this
Both the year’s and the day’s deep midnight is.

UPDATE: Final rewrite to make this a little more scholarly.

Continue reading “A Nocturnal Upon St. Lucy’s Day – John Donne”

Historically Conditioned Ramble, Pt 1

Sometimes listen to NPR. Terry Gross’s interviews are my favorite item. She should give lessons to all interviewers in whatever format that is she uses, which would consist of 3 things: Shut up and let your guest talk; ask good questions; shut up and let your guest talk.

Anyway, she was talking to some legal scholar a bit back, and the topic of ‘original intent’ came up, and she, very predictably (this is NPR) blessed the notion that, since it is inevitable that issues and situations not covered by the original intent of the drafters would come up, OF COURSE the SCOTUS would need to, you know, sort of make it up as they go, with an implied ‘what can these crazy original intent types be thinking?’.

Now, of course, the issue isn’t really binary: thinking people (especially lawyers) understand that you can’t write everything down, that there will be plenty of situations that require judges to apply law that wasn’t written with the concrete case in front of you in mind, and few ‘living document’ types really, truly believe that the Constitution is a blank piece of paper (although many of our elected officials seem damn close to that POV – it doesn’t count when your behavior is constrained by fear of the people, and that just happens to coincide with some musty legal fundamentalist’s interpretation of the Constitution. That’s called cowardice, not principle.)

What struck me was not that Ms Gross came down on the issue the way she did – news flash! Sun sets in the West – but rather how, given a situation where, from any objective perspective, you’re walking a path between the state whereby intolerable evils persist because no written law applies to remedy them and the state of chaos where the law means whatever any judge happens to feel like it means at that moment, that you’d recognize the dangers on one side of  the issue but totally miss or ignore the trouble lurking on the other.

That path is not all that narrow, but it seems to me to important to recognize you’re on it, and work to stay on it. If all you fear is that some evil might not be redressed because there are as yet no laws available with which to redress it, while not also fearing that judges might confound what they want to see happen with justice (like we all do) and thereby do evil, then you will, frankly, arrive at the current unhappy state of affairs.

Thinking about this in relation to a different but conceptually related notion: that the beliefs of the Catholic Church are ‘historically conditioned’, meaning, it seems,  that any statement of belief can be challenged and overturned based on the assertion that the belief does not represent an eternal truth, but is rather just a data-point of how people at one time and place *understood* a fundamentally ineffable truth that defies any attempt at definitive formulation.

Something like that. There’s probably a cleaner formulation of this concept out there.

Continue reading “Historically Conditioned Ramble, Pt 1”

Foucault’s Swinging Experiment

We interrupt my ranting for one of those fun little historical items:

If you’ve heard of Foucault’s  Pendulum, you probably know it as that ball on the end of a long wire thing people set up in museums and observatories. Once in a great while, it knocks over a peg, proving that the earth does, indeed, rotate on its axis.

How? Pendulums, following Newton’s laws, will swing in the same plane, unless some force acts upon them to cause them do otherwise. But the plane of  Foucault’s pendulum slowly changes (in fact, it doesn’t seem to swing in a plane at all, but is observed to swing through a series of slightly curved surfaces.) By a fairly long series of logical steps, it is concluded that the only reasonable way to explain the motion of the pendulum is by the movement of the earth beneath it – it is considered too shocking of a coincidence for the movement to be exactly what would be expected if the earth rotated exactly once a day, yet to have some other cause. In fact, the pendulum also moves differently depending on the latitude in exactly the way it should, if the motion were caused by the earth’s rotation. There’s no other reasonable explanation

Big Whup? What makes this all very interesting is that Foucault demonstrated his pendulum – it was a sensation – in February, 1851.

Galileo died in 1642.

Continue reading “Foucault’s Swinging Experiment”

Grand Sweep of History, part III

5) It helps if you can imagine what events looked like to the people at the time.  An example from within living memory – imagine you’re a German shop keeper, mechanic or accountant in 1936. Are you saying to yourself: “I think I’ll support this Hitler fellow because he’ll launch a massive doomed war that’ll cost millions of my fellow Germans their lives, and march 12 million Jews, gays, gypsies, communists and the people that stand up for them to the gas chamber”? Or, rather, are you thinking “We need a strong leader in these desperate economic times, somebody not afraid to stand up to the enemies of a strong Germany and do what needs to be done! Enough of these limp-wristed wind bags we’ve been electing lately!”? Or – what? The first way of thinking is not only almost certain to be wrong in almost all cases, it paints Germans as monsters. We’re not monsters – so we comfort ourselves – so we needn’t worry that we’d fall for the kind of rhetoric Hitler used. Right?

Here’s an extreme case. By no means am I claiming this is the whole story, but it’s a big part of the story that is routinely omitted from popular discussions:

Imagine your country has been invaded and conquered by a ruthless foreign army. During the early stages of the occupation, any sign of opposition to the regime gets you promptly executed, including simply clinging to the ancient culture you’ve inherited. Many thousands have died. Order is brutally imposed and enforced.

Neighboring countries narrowly escape conquest. They hear the horror stories as refugees stream into their territories, and, in the few places where the enemy has been repulsed, they can see for themselves how the conquered peoples have been treated. They are both terrified and horrified. They mount a counter-attack.

The battle rages for years. Whenever conquered territories are liberated, the newly freed people flock to the cause. Finally, after a long and bloody war, the invaders are defeated.The celebration is deafening, the heroes immortalized in story and song.

As is the case in every war, there were collaborators. Understandably, the people who resisted, and who fought and won the war, loath them. Lynch mobs break out. People die. Worst of all – and this also happens in every war – men of bad will start flinging accusations around, and use the post-war emotions as a means to get unpopular people killed, and their wealth seized.

The local religious authorities reluctantly get involved. They attempt to set up some war trials, in order to keep innocent people from suffering mob violence. At the same time, there were plenty of real collaborators and sympathizers, people whose cooperation helped keep the enemy in power. These people, when found, are handed over to the authorities. Over the course of several years, several thousand people are convicted and handed over to death.

This is a pretty accurate high level description of the Islamic conquest of Spain, the Reconquista and the Spanish Inquisition (at least, the parts of the Inquisition that took place during and immediately after the Reconquista). Sure, there’s more to the story: the trials under the Inquisition radically fail our ideas of fairness (although they looked pretty good by comparison to their historical antecedents), it’s very likely that many of the trials were motivated by revenge, greed, bigotry, and so on, and, once the Islamic invaders felt more secure, they did lighten up on the summary execution thing, the legendary flowering of Sephardic Jews took place under their rule. (Of course, this is the very thing that got Jews in general labeled collaborators – because many of them, by all accounts, certainly were. However sympathetic we are to the tough spot Spanish Jews found themselves in, it’s also important to see things from the viewpoint of the Christian Spaniards as well.)

Mafia, You-Fia, We’re All Fia!

Years ago, reading a book wherein was described how Things Got Done during the Roman Empire (this book, here) it dawned on me – I’m slow on the uptake, sometimes – that traditional social structures are more often like the Mafia than anything else.

No, really. See:

– power resides in a pater/don/prince who acts as judge and enforcer;

– us peons must appeal to the pater/don/prince if we want anything done;

– interactions between unequals are characterized by elaborate obsequiousness;

– there are no police (i.e., people employed by the government empowered to use force to bring about compliance with laws with no regard to persons). Sometimes, there are people wearing police uniforms, but they’re not police so much as private troops;

– the pater/don/prince retains his power through a combination of political maneuvering, the granting or withholding of favors, the calling in of debts incurred through the acceptance of favors, threats and, if all else fails, violence;

– since his power largely devolves to his ability to grant or withhold favors, he is very jealous of this power – anyone who gets anything done on his turf without going through him becomes by that fact alone his enemy, someone to be put back in line or crushed;

– a corollary: the pater/don/prince cannot allow anyone to imagine for a moment that they can do with out him. That’s the most dangerous idea of all. The most they can be allowed to imagine is replacing one don with another – dangerous, sure, but still within the model, so to speak;

– under a Mafia-style government, turf wars will be almost constant – with neighboring dons, with uppity locals

– it is almost unheard of for a Mafia-style government to describe itself in those terms. Even actual Mafias tend toward the ‘it’s just business’, ‘we’re doing what is necessary to maintain order for everybody’s benefit’, ‘tragically, violence was unavoidable’ type of self-description.

So, see what I mean? The scary part is that, not only are there lots of Mafia-style governments out there (Saudi Arabia, almost all African countries, Mexico, and on and on) but tired democracies (as Chesterton points out) tend to slouch towards the expediency of a strong man.

Grand Sweep of History, part II

4) Look at the rocks and junk. People, especially the over-educated, have a weird tendency to overlook the facts on the ground. But about the only undisputed historical evidence we have is the physical stuff prior ages left lying around.

Examples: Old churches in Europe. They’re all over the place. Big ones, little ones, in every city, little town and village.  We can conclude 2 things: first, that really motivated people built them – can you imagine what it was like to haul and carefully stack huge rocks until you’ve got a cathedral? Without power tools, trucks, cranes and so on? Second, the people must have really loved these buildings. How do we know that? Because, stone buildings take some serious maintenance work every century or so to keep up, an in places where people have built things that are not loved, they strongly tend to get ‘mined’ for materials by subsequent generations. You can see what’s left of ruins of buildings that were not loved everywhere – typically, not much.  (the Pyramids are so massive that a couple millennia of re-purposing has so far mostly just stripped off the nice smooth surfacing. That, and the population hasn’t been motivated to build giant stuff in the desert lately. The locals have not consistently loved them.)

There’s lots to argue about European history. But the facts on the ground say: those Europeans really loved their churches.

Another: Aztec ruins. Here, again, people must have been very motivated to build those pyramids. They’re still around because modern people have decided they’re interesting – charge admission, can’t climb on them anymore or chip off souvenirs.  But they’re effectively deserted – the locals don’t use them for their intended purposes any more. They’re nothing like the churches, which are still maintained and used for their intended purpose by the people in the neighborhood.

So, we can safely conclude, based on the facts on the ground, that, for the most part,  local people loved and still love their churches in Europe, but Mexicans don’t love their pyramids in the same way. It seems churches and Aztec pyramids are different, and people feel differently about them.

It may seem that this is too obvious to point out, but it bears keeping in mind, as people seem to routinely get confused about this when arguing about the evils of the Church and what a pity it is that the Aztecs were snuffed out. The rocks on the ground don’t support that thesis.

A silly little thing called ‘Democracy’

Few days back, posted the following on the Discuss Sudbury Model list on Google lists, in response to what I saw as an attempt to characterize Democracy as desperately needing a degree of benevolent nudging (or ham-fisted collectivist thought control, take your pick) in order to prevent the powerful few from dominating the disinterested many. Of course, it wasn’t put that way – that’s me trying to be funny. You should see my haircut.

Anyway,  thought it might be of interest to all those people out there not reading this blog:

You raise real issues that have gotten a lot of thought. Churchill’s quip about democracy being the worst form of government except for all the others is applicable here as well, but:

The problems you describe have been apparent since the inception of democracy – surely, the Athenians were well aware of them, as were the founding fathers, as are the people involved with Sudbury schools. In more general terms, it’s a question of balancing the interests of the few against interests of the many (or, as your examples, the interests of another few). The counterbalances are also pretty well understood (my opinions here – there’s no magesterium for the Sudbury world, I’m sure other disagree):

1) natural, unaliable rights. There are certain things the democracy shall not do. Period. No voting on it.

2) subsidiarity. As Wikipedia puts it: an organizing principle that matters ought to be handled by the smallest, lowest or least centralized competent authority.

An example that sprang to mind while reading your posts: US sugar producers, a tiny percentage of the population, have historically gotten laws passed which have the effect of imposing a sugar tax on everybody else, to the benefit of the US sugar producers. Absent these laws, we’d all pay a lot less for sugar (we’d import it all), and many if not all US based sugar producers would go out of business.

So, the questions become: are rights being violated? Is this decision being made at the appropriate level?

In the first case, I’d say yes, rights are being violated – effectively, one group of people is seizing the property of another group for their own benefit. In the second – since when is it a national level issue whether some local companies go out of business or not? Are we really going to agree that sugar production is some sort of national security issue?

Of course, there are counter arguments. But it’s telling that issues such as these are currently settled by weighing the wallets of the political contributors involved without any reference to principles at all.

In Sudbury schools, there are generally only three levels of Democracy – individuals, with their rights, groups with their goals and plans, and the school as a whole. The students, in the JC, school meeting and just in the rough and tumble of life, learn through doing that, in order for the school to run properly or even survive 1) everybody has rights which must be respected; 2) things work better if the ‘national’ level democracy (school meeting) leaves as much of the details as possible to the local level democracy (corporations and groups); 3) there are some ‘national’ level issues, such as adherence to the general laws of the land, that must be dealt with on a ‘national’ level.

So, I’d argue that, from a practical perspective, Sudbury students get far better training in the proper deployment of Democracy than any other students anywhere. They don’t get that weirdly abstract and rosy view of government I recall from ‘civics’ classes, a newsreel-like ‘progress marches on’ view of government fundamentally antithetical to functioning democracy. Instead, having experienced the work involved in a real democracy, they are less likely to mistake what goes on in America, at least at a national level, for any kind of real democracy.

This is a good thing, in my opinion.

Grand Sweep of History, part 1

Ever since I graduated, I’ve been frustrated by my lack of a grasp of history. Yet I get kidded (I think good-naturedly) about being the History Professor, since I tend to leap into some conversation or other with some story from history. This says way more about the general lack of historical perspective than it does about my level of historical erudition.

Anyway, barring a (not totally out of the question) return to academia, here’s my approach to history. Use it wisely, to dazzle your friends and baffle your enemies:

1) Get the big stories right. This could also be titled: Look at the Map, or even look at the pictures in a travel guide.

Examples: Chinese culture is really widespread. Not only are there 1.3 billion Chinese, but Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Indonesian and parts of many other cultures are offspring of Chinese culture, and Chinese influence continues to push outwards at the boarders. China is really, really big and important.

Islam is really widespread and – here’s the kicker – Islam has had effectively no positive influence on the lives of the people where it has held sway. Very politically incorrect, but also utterly historically undeniable. You can easily see this by the ridiculous lengths people go to to try to credit achievements to Islam. For comparison: vastly more useful, beautiful, and culturally positive things were produced by the about 50,000 5th century B.C. Athenians or the about 50,000 15th century Florentines  than have been produced by the millions upon millions of Muslims over the 14 centuries Islam has existed. All you have to do is look to see this.

There are really big mountains between India and China, but if you are willing to ford some rivers, you could walk from the Levant to Mumbai.

2) Get the big movements right. Mostly talking about where people are from and where they went.

Example: Americans tend to think that the native Americans have been almost eliminated. That’s somewhat true in the US, but almost completely untrue outside of some of the Caribbean islands. The blood of Native Americans runs strong in the populations of most of Latin America.

The Germanic tribes settled both France and Germany. The French and Germans are descended from the same peoples. The French Germans (so to speak) sort of learned Latin (“French is the most degenerate Romance language” – some professor or other), while the Germans Germans didn’t.

3) Atrocities are as common as dirt. Many peoples, when given the opportunity, have not hesitated to exterminate their enemies as far as possible – it’s not something only crazed dictators do (they just do it more efficiently) it is something regular people do. This adds needed perspective – what we should learn from  the Nazis is not that they were particularly monstrous, but that they were a lot like us. We should not be looking outward, but inward, if we wish to avoid more atrocities.

More later. Ciao.